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The I2 statistic is a test of heterogeneity. I2 can be calculated from Cochrane Q (the most commonly used heterogeneity statistic) according to the formula: I2 = 100% × (Cochrane Q – degrees of freedom) / Cochran Q. Any negative values of I2 are considered equal to 0, so that the range of I2 values is between 0% and 100%.
A common test for heterogeneity that assumes the null hypothesis that all the apparent variability between individual study results is due to chance. Cochrane Q generates a probability, presented as a P
value, based on a 2
distribution, that between-study differences in results equal to or greater than those observed are likely to occur simply by chance.