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The Rational Clinical Examination
David L. Simel, Drummond Rennie
Hearing Impairment
Akshay Bagai, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Allan S. Detsky
The ear is divided into 3 structural parts: external, middle, and internal (Figure 73-1). The...


Topics Discussed: hearing impairment, tympanic membrane

Excerpt: "The ear is divided into 3 structural parts: external, middle, and internal (Figure 73-1). The external ear consists of the pinna, or auricle, located on the head surface, and extends through the external auditory canal to the tympanic membrane (eardrum). It functions to capture sound waves for conduction to deeper ear components. In addition, the external ear protects the air-filled space of the middle ear, which contains the medial side of the tympanic membrane, the proximal end of the eustachian tube, and 3 bony ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes). The ossicles convert sound vibrations from the air into mechanical waves for the inner ear...."
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